Прочитал отличную книжку — The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger.
Потрясающая история, вдохновляет, ставит вопросы. Интересны параллели между контейнеризацией и НКзацией. Надо будет над этим еще думать.
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Бизнес-изменения необходимы для получения пользы от технологий (стр. 12)
Capital, labor, and land, the basic factors of production, have lost much of their fascination for those looking to understand why economies grow and prosper. The key question asked today is no longer how much capital and labor an economy can amass, but how innovation helps employ those resources more effectively to produce more goods and services. This line of research makes clear that new technology, by itself, has little economic benefit.
Паттерны внедрения технологии на примере контейнеризации (стр. 13)
Big savings in the cost of handling cargo on the docks did not translate immediately into big savings in the total cost of transportation. Transportation companies were generally ill-equipped to exploit the container's advantages, and their customers had designed their operations around different assumptions about costs. Only with time, as container shipping developed into an entirely new system of moving goods by land and sea, did it begin to affect trade patterns and industrial location. Not until firms learned to take advantage of the opportunities the container created did it change the world. Once the world began to change, it changed very rapidly: the more organizations that adopted the container, the more costs fell, and the cheaper and more ubiquitous container transportation became.
Наконец стандартизация (с. 149)
Yet after 1966, as truckers, ship lines, railroads, container manufacturers, and governments reached compromises on issue after issue, a fundamental change could be seen in the shipping world. The plethora of container shapes and sizes that had blocked the development of containerization in 1965 gave way to the standard sizes approved internationally.
230 - насколько инновационной является отрасль?
Sea-Land and its competitors were not at all like Polaroid or Xerox, companies whose proprietary technology and constant stream of innovations provided inordinately high profits for decades. Ship lines' end product was basically a commodity. Just like farmers and steelmakers, they would always be hostage to external forces, their prices and profit margins depending mainly on economic growth and on their competitors' decisions to build new ships.
Любопытно, что по имеющимся данным невозможно рассчитать даже приблизительно степень удешевления перевозок вследствие контейнеризации.
The prospect that the container would permit a worldwide economic restructuring that would vastly increase the flow of trade was not taken seriously.